Mirena (levenorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system) is a method of birth control popularly known as IUD. It is a birth control that does not require you to take it every morning. All you have to do is to check your threads every month. It is put in your uterus to inhibit pregnancy for as long as you want even up to 5 years. It also treats heavy periods in women who choose intrauterine contraception. All birth control methods are not 100 % effective and there is the probability of getting pregnant with any of them. It is recommended for women who have had at least one child; but it can also be used by women with no children. It is directly inserted into the uterus and it is estrogen free and the strings lie in the cervix.
It prevents pregnancy by thickening the cervical mucus, obstructing the movement of sperm to the fallopian tube, inhibiting the capacity and survival of the sperm and altering the endometrium. Ovulation is also inhibited in some women using Mirena. While using Mirena, it is possible to get pregnant although it is very highly unlikely. Up to half of the pregnancies that occur with Mirena in place are ectopic. There is also a chance of loss of fertility for women after the risk of ectopic pregnancy. You should recognize and report to the physician immediately you notice any symptoms of ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is a complication of pregnancy in which the pregnancy occurs outside the cavity of the uterine. It is dangerous to the mother, internal bleeding is the common complication. Most cases of ectopic pregnancies occur in the oviduct. However, implantation takes place in the ovaries, cervix and abdomen. This can lead to death if left untreated.
When intrauterine pregnancy occurs while Mirena is worn, it should be removed. Removal or manipulation of the Mirena may result in pregnancy loss. In case of intrauterine pregnancy, the patient may have to consider having septic abortion. In addition, one can choose continuation of the pregnancy with the Mirena in place; in some cases, it cannot be removed or the woman chooses not to have it removed. It increases the risk of sepsis, premature labor or delivery and even miscarriage. You should report immediately you notice symptoms like chills, fever, bleeding, leakage fluids, cramping and also vaginal discharge.
When pregnancy continues if a woman is wearing Mirena, the offspring will be greatly affected. Congenital irregularities have been recorded in live births but not frequently. Some research has supported the danger of masculinization of the external genitalia of the feeling fetus falling exposure to progestins at doses greater than those currently used for oral contraception. Although it is one of the most effective birth control methods, there is the risk of miscarriage occurring particularly during the second trimester if one becomes pregnant while on Mirena. It also increases premature delivery and the risks are reduced if the IUD is removed after pregnancy is discovered.
It is important to note that in large clinical trials of Mirena, half of all pregnancies detected during the studies were ectopic. The symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include vaginal bleeding which could be heavier or lighter than your normal period, gastrointestinal symptoms, weakness, dizziness or fainting, sharp or stabbing pain that may come and go and vary in intensity. The pain may be in the pelvis abdomen or even the shoulder and neck.
Women who have had an ectopic pregnancy should not use Mirena nor should women with an irregular shaped uterus. There is controversy in the IUD use, and it has come under fire from anti –abortion groups because of the concerns that it destroys fertilized eggs. There are risk factors of Mirena IUD use if you currently have pelvic inflammatory disease, have had one in the past or are prone to giving PID; the same is applicable if you have liver disease or a liver tumors, a present or past diagnosis of breast cancer, having multiple sexual partners or been in a non monogamous relationship, if you are pregnant and if you are breast feeding among others.
One of the positive side effects of Mirena is that hormones cause menstruation to become significantly lighter or even stop all together. This side effect is temporary because once the IUD is removed, menstruation continues as normal. There is also a known reduction of premenstrual symptoms such as bloating and cramps, which is another positive side effective. The negative side effects vary from one woman to another and they may include expulsion (that is where the IUD may dislodge and come out), ovarian cyst, among others. Advocates say that the device prevents most sperm from reaching the eggs and those sperms that reach the eggs are unable to complete fertilization.